Welcome to the website of the Rescue project

The project REnewable Smart Cooling for Urban Europe (RESCUE) aims to address the key challenges for the further development and implementation of district cooling using low and zero carbon emitting sources, thereby enabling local communities to reap the environmental and economic benefits of this energy efficiency technology.

For policy makers: Report on District Cooling and the Legislative Framework

On the EU level, the regulatory framework for district energy is set by EU directives and other documents such as the Energy Efficiency Directive 2012/27/EU, Energy Roadmap 2050 (issued in December 2011) or the Energy Efficiency Plan from March 2011. The paper elaborates on the impact of the EED on the district cooling business with examples from Italy and the UK. Furthermore, regulatory barriers and practices are examined in Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Finland, France, Italy, Austria, and the UK.

The last chapter is devoted to recommendations on regulations for further advancing of district cooling such as:

a. Free market without regulations / b. Level playing field for subsidies on the energy market / c. CO2 tax /d. Primary energy use / e. SEAP positive initiative /f. Support on feasibility studies

For developing your appetite for reading the report, please consider following statements (excerpts from the Report):

Sweden: During the period from 1995 to 2010 the supply of district heating has increased from 42 to 55 TWh in Sweden. All district cooling systems already established were done by energy companies that already operate district heating systems in the cities.

Denmark: Energy companies are subject to strict price regulation (Heat Supply Act) in the form of non-profit principle.

Germany: The CHP Act (KWKG) in its amendments made district cooling networks and storages eligible for the financial support under the same conditions that are applied for district heating networks and heat storages.

Finland: Primary energy factors, set from a political point of view, make at the moment district heat and heat pumps equally right solutions when considering a building construction.

France: In Paris, the provisions of the urban regulation ensure that the beautiful façades of historical buildings in the city centre are preserved by posing constraints and limitations to the installations of individual air conditioning systems and thus indirectly supporting the development of district cooling.

Italy: The main barrier on developing district cooling is the lack of companies with enough financial strength and ability to raise attractive capital.

Austria: Fernwärme Wien, for example, uses a variety of energy strategy documents which support the expansion of the DC business. The energy strategy documents are of a general nature but all have successfully been used for the communication while expanding the district cooling.

UK: Merton Rule, adopted in 2003, was a ground breaking policy, which required new developments to generate at least 10 % of their energy needs from on-site renewable energy equipment to help reduce annual carbon dioxide emissions. District cooling has the potential to make a significant contribution to the 10% renewable energy goal.

Your RESCUE Team from Sweden and Germany

7 minutes for 8 questions- test your knowledge acquired during last three years

At the end of the project, we prepared 8 questions for you with (at least) one or more correct answers. You can find them on the page 3 of the 4th Newsletter.

1.What is the difference between District cooling (DC) pipes and district heating (DH) pipes.

A. None, both can be used in any district energy system B. Plastic coating of DH pipes is coloured black and the coating of DC pipes dark-blue C. The return pipe of district cooling pipe does not have to be insulated D. DC pipes are normally smaller and thus profitable to be built for long distances

2.The paradox Nr. 1. There are more district cooling systems in Northern Europe than in the Southern part. Why is it so?

A.Southern countries have less experience with district energy systems and thus less courage to start a district cooling system. B.Not only outdoor temperature matters but the human activity inside the buildings (base load). C.Heat island effect does not apply to Southern Europe D.Higher outdoor summer temperature makes local systems work better than centralized ones

3.The definition of natural cooling:

A.Respecting the principles of nudism during hot summers B.Utilizing cold water from lakes, rivers, seas via heat exchangers for producing the chilled water C.Producing the chilled water in accordance with laws on environment protection D.Trigeneration

4.Every district cooling system uses a mix of production technologies. Three main production technologies for district cooling are:

A. Absorption chillers, natural cooling, heat pumps B. Ice bank, snow making, freezers C. Natural cooling, absorption chillers, electric-driven chillers D. Fuel cells, cold water storages, natural cooling E.Photovoltaic, natural cooling, cogeneration

5.For developing a district cooling scheme, three key players are relevant: energy company, local authority and building owners. What is the role of local authority in general?

A. Setting the price for district cooling B. Including the concept of district cooling into Sustainable Energy Action Plans C. Decreasing cooling demand in city centres D. Issuing permissions for building a district cooling system E. Protecting historical architecture in the city centres by restricting the use of individual cooling devices

6.In almost every real chiller plant, delta-T falls well short of design levels. What are the consequences of too low temperature differentials (difference between supply and return temperature) which is typically limited to 8 – 11 C?

A. High pumping costs due to higher water volume necessary for providing the capacity B. The operator of the DC system may sue the authors of the pre-feasibility study C. There are no consequences at all D. Higher bills for DC customers if stated in the contract E. Increase in chilled water flow rate, the pipe becomes a bottle neck.

7.Which factor(s) does/do NOT affect cooling demand?

A. Relative humidity B. Number of overweight inhabitants occupying the building C. Outdoor temperature D. Size of the cooling devices within the building E. Human activity in the building

8.On the ownership of the DC system, please choose correct statement(s):

A. The best ownership model – city having its shares in the private company owning the system B. If the DC system is included in the Sustainable Energy Action Plan, the ownership shall be public. C. The success of the DC system is usually not affected by ownership issues D. No matter who owns the system, the municipality will always set the price for building owners E. A strong recommendation on the ownership issue is to be found in the feasibility study

City councils, policy makers, city architects – in a search for a showcase city?

Out of 10 showcase example cities presented in our new report, Paris, Stockholm, Helsinki, Barcelona, Copenhagen and Vienna represent the leading cities on District Cooling. No wonder that the development of district cooling starts in the largest city of each country as there are huge cooling demands of major corporations and main governmental buildings situated in those cities. However, Halmstad and Växjö showcases demonstrate the smaller city examples with a population of 60.000 and the aim to build cooling capacities in the range of 15-25 MW.

Other issues covered by the report are: local and climate conditions, technical solutions, the use of thermal energy storages, software tool, and experience from established systems – all written in the language (hopefully) not boring for these who devoted their university studies and carrier to non-technical fields.

Your RESCUE teams from Sweden and Germany

To all District Heating and Cooling associations,

 a few printed versions of Cool Conclusions in 5 languages are still available for you and your members! Please contact ensys@mailbox.tu-dresden.de to receive your copies in English, German, Italian, Polish or French!

Your RESCUE-team

District Cooling Calculator - free download on request

The project consortium developed the calculator to assist interested parties while numbering the potential benefits and savings of a district cooling system compared to an alternative. On the input sheet, you will be asked to provide information such as the country (as the EU states use various factors for emissions and are at different price levels), cooling demand, defining the base case and additional information on existing sources. The final output is the comparison of the district cooling scheme with your defined base system in four aspects: primary energy factor (PEF), electricity demand, CO2 emissions and the range of costs. The Quick Start Guide is available as well and the tool itself is ready to be downloaded.

In order to get the free access to the tool, please contact the DHC+ platform dhcplus@remove-this.euroheat.org.

RESCUE Report on Support Package Tool List

This report discusses the requirements for the assessment tool developed within the RESCUE Support Package. Furthermore existing tools, which were considered when developing the RESCUE tool are listed and analyzed. The report can be downloaded here.

RESCUE Report on District Cooling and the Customers' Alternative Cost

This report discusses the complexity of calculating the different cost items and the factors influencing them for both the customers’ alternative and for District Cooling, which today is aimed mainly at the service sector. Each
customer is unique and national and regional differences have to be taken into account. The price for cooling must be calculated individually for each customer’s
specific needs and conditions but price ranges can be assumed from the data available. District Cooling is also defined by the varying conditions for the investment and operation of the system. For favourable conditions the District Cooling system will consist of a mix of available production
possibilities, natural cooling, electrical chillers or absorption chillers. The cost for District Cooling therefore also shows a large variation. The report can be downloaded here.

RESCUE Report on EU District Cooling Market and Trends

This report discusses the EU27 cooling market today, 2020 and 2030. In the scope lies also an estimation of the District Cooling market. Based on the assumption that District Cooling is expected to get a recognition of its environmental benefits prognoses for 2020 and 2030 based on three different scenarios were conducted. The RESCUE project duration is too short to register any development, to establish a new District Cooling system generally takes 3 to 4 years from feasibility study until start‐up of the first operations. The results from the RESCUE project on the District Cooling market may therefore be only observed in the future. The report can be downloaded here.

RESCUE Report on Environmental Factors from a Cooling Perspective

In this report a system for evaluating the impact of a District Cooling installation on the environment is conducted. From a cooling perspective primary energy is the most important indicator due to the fact that renewable energy sources are already considered in non‐renewable primary energy factors. However in general it is still reommended to follow Ecoheat4Cities’ standards and use
primary energy, carbon dioxide emissions and renewable and recycled energy fraction as indicators of District Cooling’s impact on the environment. The report can be downloaded here.

RESCUE Report on District Cooling Customer Measurement Analysis

In this report the European Cooling Index (ECI) is compared to real values of “typical” building’s cooling demand in different countries. The ECI was created in the framework of the Ecoheatcool project “The European Cold market” (Dalin, Nilsson, & Rubenhag, 2006). By comparing the assumptions made when conducting the ECI to real values the ECI's adequacy for estimating cooling demand can be concluded. The report can be downloaded here.

RESCUE report on Communication Events and Networking

The report is now online and can be downloaded here.